Retrieved 17 September 2007.
Archived from the original on 16 September 2010.
43 The crisis continued with S P downgrading the credit rating of nine euro-area countries, including France, then downgrading the entire European Financial Stability Facility (efsf) fund.
Some of these countries had the most serious sovereign financing problems.61 Transaction costs and risks edit The most obvious benefit of adopting a single currency is to remove the cost of exchanging currency, theoretically allowing businesses and individuals to consummate previously unprofitable trades.European Union and its territories.Retrieved The Belarusian ruble is pegged to the euro, Russian ruble and US in a currency basket.Retrieved "Will the Euro Eventually Surpass the Dollar As Leading International Reserve Currency?" (PDF).In 2007 Rome was the 11th-most-visited city in the world, 3rd most visited in the EU, and the most popular tourist attraction in Italy."Euro cash: five and familiar".Dollar fell from 71 to 64 and that held in Yen fell from.4.3."Peripheral euro zone government bond spreads widen"."The Euro: From Logo to Letter".Further reading edit Bartram, Söhnke.; Taylor, Stephen.; Wang, Yaw-Huei (May 2007).T/associate-countries/ Retrieved Plan for a European Currency, 1973 by Mundell "The Breakup of the Euro Area by Barry Eichengreen".Archived from the original on Retrieved iebert, echanger le permis de conduire etranger en france Jürgen (2002)."Commission communication: The introduction of euro banknotes and coins one year after COM(2002) 747".June 30, 2009" (PDF)."Compositional Analysis of Foreign Currency Reserves in the Period.
29 This includes all member states of the EU, even those outside the eurozone providing the transactions are carried out in euro.71 72 These results suggest that other policies aimed at European integration might be the source of observed increase in trade.63 Price parity edit Another effect of the common European currency is that differences in pricesin particular in price levelsshould decrease because of the law of one price.55 On, São Tomé and Príncipe signed an agreement with Portugal which will eventually tie its currency to the euro.Differences in prices can trigger arbitrage,.e., speculative trade in a commodity across borders purely to exploit the price differential.The Bulgarian lev was formerly pegged to the Deutsche Mark; one other EU currency with a direct peg due to ERM II is the Danish krone.Retrieved Pop, Valentina "Commission frowns on shop signs that say: '500 notes not accepted, EU Observer European Commission (15 February 2003).Retrieved "Regulation (EC) No 2560/2001 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 19 December 2001 on cross-border payments in euro".Hobijn, Bart; Ravenna, Federico; Tambalotti, Andrea (2006).
Currently, 19 of 28 member states use the euro; this group of states is known as the eurozone or euro area.